Evolutionary history



Scale insects hide a fascinating evolutionary history as they display today extremely diverse morphologies, habitats and genetic systems. However, not much is known about their evolution since they have been mostly studied as agricultural pests.

My Ph.D. research aimed at reconstructing a dated tree of life of scale insects using fossils preserved in amber and extant scale insect systematics, reconciling the paleontological and neontological study in this group.

Scale insects are represented by comprehensive fossil record in several amber deposits back to 135 million years ago and therefore could be used an ideal group to incorporate fossil morphological study into a phylogeny. My study uncovered unsuspected extinct diversity in Cretaceous ambers and the divergence time estimates suggest that scale insects diversified a long time before the diversification of flowering plants, which are their main hosts today.

Divergence time estimates of scale insect lineages, incorporating fossil groups (Vea and Grimaldi, 2016 Sci.Rep.)

This project was funded by an NSF DDIG.


Vea, Isabelle M., and David A. Grimaldi. “Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts.” Scientific reports 6 (2016): 23487.

Vea, Isabelle M., and David A. Grimaldi. “Diverse new scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in amber from the Cretaceous and Eocene with a phylogenetic framework for fossil Coccoidea.” American Museum Novitates 3823 (2015): 1-15.

Vea, Isabelle M. “Morphology of the males of seven species of Ortheziidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).” American Museum Novitates 3812 (2014): 1-36.

Vea, Isabelle M., and David A. Grimaldi. “Phylogeny of ensign scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) based on the morphology of recent and fossil females.” Systematic Entomology 37.4 (2012): 758-783.